Category Archives:learn something

WILT #16: Use a Minecraft Seed in Windows 10 Beta

I’ve played Minecraft for years but never used a seed, never played with other people and never found a diamond. If you play seriously, it’s probably pretty sad, but hey, I like doing other stuff besides mining and I’m rarely able to play online anyway (let alone know anyone to play with). However I have no excuses for not using seeds except that I played in a PS3, and I didn’t even know they existed. Before today I’ve pretty much figured everything out on myself, never read a wiki page or watched a Youtube video. To be fair, I’ve been playing Skyrim and Mass Effect for years now and Minecraft is not my first pick – but I like it for its therapeutic and goal reaching purposes.

Today however, I decided to download the Windows 10 Beta version from the Google Play store. I expected it to be pretty much the same but so far the controls are holding me back and I’m a little annoyed that my games on the PS3 are out of reach. I’ll get over it once I get used to the controls of a PC game once again.

Back to Minecraft Seeds…

So I found a forum, and I found a few websites, and I only got one seed to work out of all the lists, and it was a water world with no buildings that I could tell (404). I tried again and again, and kept ending up in a really dense forest with nothing in any direction but trees.

I even found a seed that was supposed to put me in a village full of bunny rabbits.. but noooooooooooooooooooooooo.

After more time than I’d like to admit, looking for a seed that worked, I found a blog that explained why they weren’t working.

“The Minecraft Windows 10 beta version is modeled after the Pocket Edition, making it more streamlined to function seamlessly between PC and mobile devices running the new operating system. While that’s handy for switching between tablets and desktops or playing multiplayer, the new version doesn’t always play nice with older seeds.”

FINALLY, answers.

I then found a more up to date forum post that has seeds verified to work within the last month (Dec 2015).

I tried out a couple but settled on “thebestseedever” – and pretty quickly, while flying, in creative mode, found a small village to start my mediocre new existence in.


To use a seed in Minecraft for Windows 10 Beta:

  • Start a New Game
  • Name your game and click Advanced in the top corner.
  • Type in the Seed name or number
  • Choose a world type (I used infinite and didn’t test the others)
  • Choose Survival or Creative Mode
  • PLAY (in creative mode, double click the shift bar, or jump, to fly and search for a village or place to build a home).

Resources: Minecraft



WILT#15: The Bed of Antarctica is Less Well Known Than the Surface of Mars

An international team of researchers led by Durham University believe they’ve discovered the largest canyon on Earth. Using satellite data and ground-penetrating radar, they estimate it to be more than 100 km long and as deep as 1 km in places. They’ll need to make direct measurements to confirm these findings, though that will be difficult given that the canyon is buried under several kilometers of East Antarctic ice sheet. The team suspects that the canyon was either carved out of the bedrock by water flowing under the ice or is so absurdly old that it was around before Antarctica shifted to the South Pole via tectonic forces and frozen over.

Read more at 

WILT #14: 40 New Cuss Words I Never Knew Existed

51VhP+r40tLMy friend Lisa, my best friend from highschool’s little sister who is now a great friend of mine as well, gave me a book for Christmas, The Little Red Book of Very Dirty Words.

I read Letters A-B last night and learned far more cuss words than I ever wanted to, but it made me laugh out loud or gasp at least 10 times, and I definitely plan to read the rest of it. I really like that it’s a mix of British and American slang, since my boyfriend is British and we go to the K from time to time, I feel like I might get more jokes or at least know when I’m being insulted next time.

In “The Little Red Book of Very Dirty Words,” you’ll find the dirtiest of the dirty, along with the most deliciously obscene variations from English-speaking countries around the world. So go ahead, call your ex/boss/landlord a barmy, crop-dusting, kickin’, frackin’, bloody son-of-a-bitch dickwad.

Swear. Loudly. You’ll be friggin’ glad you did. Because with this nastiest of nasty wordbooks, you’ll find talking dirty has never been more fun–or more filthy!

dirty words 1

WILT #13: What to do with a Savoy Cabbage

I grabbed an odd looking little cabbage at the store the other day, a Savoy Cabbage. It took me a while to get around to using it, it sort of disappeared in the back of the fridge for a few days. We also made habanero cauliflour cheese balls, and had homemade seitan as the main protein. This recipe turned out great, maybe even better than our roasted romaine hearts!

Roasted cabbage wedge salad

I think savoy cabbage is the prettiest, but this will work with Napa or red cabbage as well, with mild variations in flavor. If a whole roasted cabbage is too much for you (as it is for the two of us), do roast the whole cabbage. Covered and refrigerated, it will be ready throughout the week to include in soups and stir-fries.

  1. 1 head savoy cabbage
  2. 1-2 tablespoons olive oil
  3. Kosher salt
  4. For the vinaigrette:
  5. 5 tablespoons olive oil
  6. 3 tablespoons sherry vinegar
  7. 1 teaspoon dijon mustard
  8. Kosher salt
  9. Fresh ground black pepper
  10. For assembly
  1. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees Fahrenheit.
  2. Using a large, sharp knife, quarter the cabbage. Depending on the size of your cabbage, these quarters may be good size already. If they seem too large for one plate, halve each of the quarters so you have eight cabbage wedges. Trim away any very pithy or brown ends of the core, but leave the core intact. The core will hold the wedges together while roasting.
  3. Arrange the cabbage wedges on a baking sheet. Drizzle the cabbages with the olive oil, and then sprinkle liberally with kosher salt.
  4. Transfer the baking sheet to the oven. Roast the cabbage for 30 minutes, flipping the wedges at 15 minutes so they brown evenly. At the conclusion of roasting, the cabbages may have some blackened, crispy outer leaves. If you don’t want this, feel free to take them out a few minutes early, but note that the inside of the cabbage may be less tender than if you had left it in longer.
  5. While the cabbage is roasting, make your vinaigrette: whisk together olive oil, sherry vinegar, and dijon. Taste the vinaigrette and season with salt and pepper to taste.
  6. When the cabbage is finished quickly, work quickly: Plate the cabbage wedges, drizzle with vinaigrette. Serve immediately, while the cabbage is still hot.

Read more:

WILT #12: Why do some stars flicker?

This shouldn’t have been a difficult one but it’s something I’ve been meaning to look up, and now, instead of saying “hmm, I’ll have to look that up later”, I actually try and do it now.

We’re in a lot of rural areas all year long, with amazing stars due to dark night skies, so I’ve been meaning to learn more about astronomy, I bought a book, that I’ve yet to delve into much, but I wondered again today simply why stars flicker. Maybe a parent explained this to you, or you had a helpful physics teacher,  (Chemistry for the win!) but I have to look these things up.

The scientific name for the twinkling of stars is stellar scintillation (or astronomical scintillation). Stars twinkle when we see them from the Earth’s surface because we are viewing them through thick layers of turbulent (moving) air in the Earth’s atmosphere. Stars (except for the Sun) appear as tiny dots in the sky; as their light travels through the many layers of the Earth’s atmosphere, the light of the star is bent (refracted) many times and in random directions (light is bent when it hits a change in density – like a pocket of cold air or hot air). This random refraction results in the star winking out (it looks as though the star moves a bit, and our eye interprets this as twinkling). Stars closer to the horizon appear to twinkle more than stars that are overhead – this is because the light of stars near the horizon has to travel through more air than the light of stars overhead and so is subject to more refraction. Also, planets do not usually twinkle, because they are so close to us; they appear big enough that the twinkling is not noticeable (except when the air is extremely turbulent). Stars would not appear to twinkle if we viewed them from outer space (or from a planet/moon that didn’t have an atmosphere). (source)Twinkle

I suppose, for some reason, that atmosphere never crossed my mind at all, even though it seems fairly obvious now. I thought it had more to do with my eyes trying to translate colorful light-waves and they couldn’t quite render the colors to my brain, or that it was more of an optical illusion. Which in a way it sort of is, but it has a culprit.


So now, I really want to know what stars look like from the International Space Station. This is crazy!

You can see that many of them still appear to have color, however they aren’t tinkling or changing color as they would from earth. Their color depends on their temperature, and we’re still not able to see all the colors without a prism (like green).

Here’s a summary of the dominant color and temperatures of the main classes of stars, along with examples of stars that belong to each class:

– See more at:

WILT #11: Stop Photoshop CC From Crashing on Windows 10

I just got this laptop about 4 weeks ago and so far it’s been so great! My last one was falling behind, it’s kind of sad how short lived laptops are these days. My new one is a Lenovo ideapad, touch screen, 16 gigs of ram, 500 gig hard drive, touch screen, amazing screen resolution, and two graphics cards. It’s a gaming laptop, but I wanted it for handling my use of Adobe Photoshop CC, Lightroom and possibly Illustrator at the same time (ok..and I got it to play games). My last computer was always letting me down CPU wise and was not upgradable.

However, I’ve had, off and on, issues with the laptop throwing me a blue screen of death when I open Photoshop. We figured out pretty quickly that it had something to do with one of the graphics cards. We experimented with turning off 3D graphics within Photoshop (when it would open), changing the graphics card in the NVIDIA GeForce control panel (under 3D settings, option 2). It was defaulted to use the Intel graphics card (integrated), so I went between trying it on GeForce instead, but still, more often than not, I would get a blue screen, crashing everything I was doing at the time on the computer.

  • I also tried rolling back the graphics drivers, holding down CTRL, ALT, SHIFT during Photoshop launch (to reset settings) and no go – advice I had found for semi-related issues on but not quite.


The blue screen would not give me a decent enough error message, simply KERNAL_SECURITY_CHECK_ERROR, and even looking in the Event Viewer (find by typing that in the cortana search) for errors, it was hard to tell what exactly was going on. Eventually we noticed a reference to another Adobe Photoshop application in the app list in the NVIDIA control panel, the Adobe Photoshop GPU Sniffer.

So with this new tip in mind, we went back to the NVIDIA GeForce control panel, 3D settings and:

  • Clicked “add” next to “1. Select a program to customize:” and found the sniffer.
  • Then, since both apps were set to the Intel graphics driver (Auto: integrated), I switched them both to the NVIDIA GeForce driver and so far, everything had been much better.

The NVIDIA GeForce driver will cause the laptop to run a little hotter, but until the issue with compatibility is solved by either Adobe or Windows, it’ll be fine.

This is irrelevant to most of you but hopefully someone out there has the same issue and this helped!



WILT #10: Jackie Chan Filmed Rumble in the Bronx with a Broken Ankle

We’re sort of Jackie Chan fans, not as much as Donny Yen Fans, however I’m not a fan of either of their stance on Hong Kong/China. Worried about your careers much, guys? or just dicks? anyway –  Although I’ve seen it before, I made my boyfriend watch Rumble in the Bronx. It’s a hard movie to start watching because the uncle in the film has some of the worst dubbing, but the movie starts to get good when the motorcycles show up (my favorite part after his fighting of course).   He injured his ankle, from what I could tell from the credit outtakes (a very Jackie Chan movie thing), when he jumped onto a moving boat, the then finished the film with the injury and for the final scene, they colored a sock to look like his other shoe and he finished in style.

But that’s not the end or the start of his injuries while making films: 

Supercilliary bone (eyebrow bone!) damaged, almost causing blindness:Drunken Master (1978)

• Broken Nose: Young Master (1980), Project A (1983), Miracles (1989), Mr. Nice Guy (1997)

• Knocked out tooth: Snake in the Eagle’s Shadow (1978)

• Lip lacerated: Police Story 4: First Strike (1996)

• Lower chin injury: Dragon Lord (1982)

• Dislocation of the right shoulder: City Hunter (1993)

• Broken breastbone: Armour of God II: Operation Condor (1991)

• Broken finger bones: The Protector (1985)

• Knee damage: City Hunter (1993)

• Ankle (well, malleolus) injury: Who Am I? (1998)

• Eye injury: The Medallion (2003)

• Skull fracture, bone cave-in behind left ear, and brain bleeding from falling out of a tree: The Armour of God (1986)

• Cheek bone dislocation: Police Story 3: Super Cop (1992)

• Cervical spine damage from falling from a 25 meter clock tower: Project A(1983)

• Spinal damage from falling from a pole: Police Story (1985)

• Pelvis dislocation almost causing partial paralysis: Police Story (1985)

• Tailbone damage causing temporary partial paralysis: The Accidental Spy(2001)

• Thigh injury from being caught between two cars: Crime Story (1993)

• Broken ankle: Rumble in The Bronx (1995), Thunderbolt (1996)

I’ve broken a leg/ankle/femur (depending on who you ask) but I was able to walk on it and didn’t know it was broken for a couple days. Since, I’ve sprained both ankles and a wrist (all on my motorcycle of course), I consider myself lucky to not have broken anything quite so serious as Jackie.

WILT #8: Calculating How Much Snow I Shoveled

In school, I was pretty good at math, but as soon as I no longer needed math credits, I was quick to abandon it. I’ve regretted it ever since.  Over the last year or so I’ve been practicing doing math/arithmetic in my head as often as possible and started trying to figure out math problems in everyday situations. I’ve never bothered figuring out square footage (not difficult, length x width), just never had a reason yet, but I took it a step further today to figure out how much snow I shoveled when I had to take care of the 8 inches that fell today.

First I had to make as good of a guess as possible for how long the path was that I dug, and include the porch as well. I estimated about 200 feet from the house to the road, 2 feet wide and an average of 9 inches deep, some 6 inches, some 18, but most 8. The, I went online and found out how much powdery snow weighs. This can’t possibly be very accurate, but based on every shovel load I swung.. I won’t disagree, it’s heavy. It said that a square foot of powdery snow weight 7lb. I assume by square foot is actually means 12x12x12 rather than just 12×12, otherwise, it could be an inch… I decided that a 9 inch deep area of snow, rather than 12 square would be 5lbs (eh?). So, this is what I found and adapted to my needs:


  • Write the equation to find what percentage 5lbs is of 7lbs, which algebraically is: 5 = X/100 7, since percentage is how much per 100. Solve the equation by isolating X. Divide each side by 7. Now the equation reads: 5/7=X/100 (7/7). Reduce: .714 = X/100. Multiply each side by 100 to get .715=X/100*100. Solve: X=71.4 percent. Read more :



200ft x 2ft wide = 400 square feet, so like, a tiny apartment. Then to figure out how much that all weighs if it’s 9 inches deep..I came up with , based on the above malarkey, that there is 5lbs per 71% of a square foot. So, bear with me because I’m probably wrong – 3200lbs – 929(29%) = 2,271lbs.

Checked with one person, must be right.


WILT #7: Europe’s First Civilization, The Minoans

Today I watched a documentary about the city of Knossos in Crete, discovered 100 years ago. It’s the home of the oldest known civilization in Europe, the Manoans.


The documentary starts with the Greek legend of the Minotaur, but quickly leaves to explain its origin and possible inspiration for the Labyrinth in which the Labyrinth was kept, possibly Knossos.


The discovery of the Minoans blew the archeological world away by being both prehistoric and advanced culturally. Of course like all mysterious ancient cultures, they up and disappeared, due to a volcanic eruption, killing and destroying in a flash, then slowly ruining the islands prosperity with long term effects, one of them religious catastrophy due to a loss of faith.


Their gods were female and likely represented the elements of nature that they depended on greatly for their harvests and good weather. The religious leaders were often women and like quite a few cultures before exposure to Christianity or Islam, they seemed fairly equally balanced among the genders.


The Minotaur however, whose size was enormous, and story sorted and sad, was based on the Minoan’s favorite recreational creature, the extinct Aurochs; the ancient ancestors of modern cattle. They were the size of American Bison with hooves the size of a man’s head.

I watched it on Hulu but it’s also available YouTube!

The only thing that bothers me about the documentary is that the host won’t stop touching things, and at times, her loose shirt is on the verge of anarchy. She’s also a bit awkward at times, but much of that is due to her strange wardrobe (for a documentary) and odd shots and camera angles, basically I think the director is to blame, not the host. Overall she keeps it interesting. I’m still a film minor after all, I can’t help but notice things like that.

WILT #6: The Cheapest Places to Live in the World

* titles have been shortened to WILT for “What I Learned Today”

Today’s ‘thing’ began with an article motivated by a gig I bought from a woman in the Phillipines. I had paid for a gig for $10, on the 30th of December, for her to post 344 Etsy items to Pinterest for me. It’s a Personal Assistant gig that claimed she could do social media stuff. It seemed like a lot of items, so I bought 2 gigs, but still not sure if that was enough. She started out by being really confused on how to pin things at all, then said she was being asked to log into Etsy. I sent her some screen shots and tried to figure out why she was being asked to log in and she never really replied. A couple days go by and she says “OK. But there’s a delay for the new year”. So I wait til today and she still hadn’t done anything yet, the gigs are overdue by a few days and it sounded like she didn’t really want to do it anyway, so I canceled the order. I thought maybe I was doing her a favor, letting her off the hook of this overcomplicate gig. However, she messaged me pretty quick claiming she was just about to do it and begged to give her another shot. So I did, I want the items pinned and I don’t have time to do that kind of tedious Pinterest stuff myself. As soon as I paid I could see her getting busy pinning and all was well. We both win, I get 344 items pinned to Pinterest and she learned how to pin items to Pinterest.

Then I started to wonder how much money is $10 in the Philippines. It varies I’m sure, and the first article I found was from 2010:

Dacalanio lives across the world, between Makati and Pasay cities in the Philippines. For $10 — or about 450 Philippine pesos — he filled his fridge with chicken, ham, fruits, veggies and spices.

Ive always kind of wanted to spend some time there, or Indonesia, so it’s interesting to know. The entire article is filled with clever ways of making the most of a few bucks, something I used to be really good at. Now I barely flinch when I buy a $5 coffee, where in the past it might have been a major treat. It’s another thing I hope to work on this year. The part about the spinach plants is awesome, I may never have a garden, but I like the idea of every urban (and rural) home with a yard home gardening #grassispointless (unless it’s for erosion), and getting a $1,700 crop for $10 in seeds and supplies is awesome.

That article led me to look for something more up do date, but instead I found an article on the “Cheapest Places in the World to Live” and it turned out that the first place mentioned is a place I already lived for a year, Argentina, and the article said Exactly what I would tell anyone interested in moving there.

Besides bargains on rent, good wine, and good food, this is a very easy place to set up residency. You can get legal if you have the patience for Argentina’s legendary bureaucracy, or you can just leave the country every three months (Chile and Uruguay are neighbors) to get a new tourist visa. If you overstay your visa there’s a fine of about $40 regardless of how long you’ve overstayed, so you could go for years if you wanted to test it. Just be advised that there are serious import restrictions in place and the country could collapse at any moment. Locals say there’s a crisis every decade or so and the way things are headed it’s a matter of when, not if…

I was really surprised by any European countries being included in the article. Bulgaria actually sounds awesome to me (all of the Expendables movies were filmed there). The article says :

You can buy a house on eBay for less than $20,000 and one couple I interviewed paid far less than that: prices were so low they ended up buying three properties and renting out the other two. You can buy a two-bedroom condo for less than $50,000 in a ski village and rents range from €150 to €500 throughout the country—that last amount being for a high-end place in Sofia.

Overall, there are still cheap places to live, travel to and retire to, which makes leaving the RV and traveling the world even more appealing. Unfortunately the article didn’t say much about South Africa, probably because its not actually very cheap to live there. It mentioned the rand being low and it being a good time to move now, however, it should have mentioned how hard it is to immigrate there. I’ll just have to do more research on that later.

What I learned today #5: Daesh is Running a Modern Day Crusade

I never thought about it this way, because my knowledge of the Crusades comes mostly from films (and a Catholic family who would deny it ever happened). This article certainly made clear my impressions of the crusades and how daesh compares, closely, on all accounts… Scary.

Viewpoint: Daesh on the Baltic

Beheadings, mass slaughter, martyrdom, religious fundamentalism, forced conversions, high-profile hostages, foreign volunteers fuelled by religious zeal (or a taste for adventure), propaganda, powerful clerics, questionable claims to statehood, tribes in a flux between civil war and alliance, interventions by great powers: these have become staples of the coverage given to Daesh’s gruesome antics in Iraq and Syria.

Latvian expertise on the subject is assumed to be limited solely to the researches of NATO’s Strategic Commnications Center of Excellence (STRATCOMCOE) based in Riga, which has produced some interesting data on how Daesh spreads its message via social media.

It’s also become popular to characterize Daesh as a Medieval organization making use of twenty-first century technology. And that is what leads us to what might be the closest historical precedent for what is currently happening in the Middle East and provides us with a thought-provoking parallel: the Northern Crusades of the 13th century, particularly in Livonia (roughly present day Latvia and Estonia).

While the Crusades to the Holy Land are well known, the Northern Crusades to conquer and convert the inhabitants of the Baltic littoral remain fairly obscure. The first stop for anyone interested in the subject should be Eric Christiansen’s marvelous history of the period from the publishing of the Papal Bull (the jihad of its day) authorizing the crusades, through the formation of the Livonian Sword Brothers, who seem to have been a brutal and ragtag bunch (their first leader, Wenno, had his head lopped off in a Cesis bar fight), their land grab and eventual takeover by the better-organized but no less brutal Teutonic Knights.

The modus operandi of Daesh and the Sword Brothers is strikingly similar: first terror-inducing raids, then arrival in force and giving the inhabitants of a village a simple choice – convert or die.

The quotation at the top of this page comes from the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, a wonderful contemporary work by a missionary priest which reads like a war diary of conquest and conversion. The ones doing the slaughtering in that passage are not the heathens but Lettish converts marching into still-pagan Estonia in order to further extend Christendom. It continues:

“On the following day, after all the villages had been colored with much pagan blood, they returned. Collecting many spoils from the villages, they took back with them the beasts of burden, many flocks and a great many girls, whom alone the army was accustomed to spare in these lands.”

In case one thinks such rapine and carnage was somehow over-enthusiasm on the part of the killers, Henry points out that they celebrated the victory with a Sword Brother named Berthold, a priest, and that “all, without exception joyfully blessed God because through new converts the Lord had taken such vengeance, even on other nations.”

All that’s lacking is a few AK-47s being fired into the air.

Just as Daesh justifies its hell as the means of bringing about a universal Islamic heaven, so the crusaders believed that they were doing the Baltic tribes a favor in the long run. As Henry puts it:

“Certainly, through the many wars that followed, the pagans were to be converted and, through the doctrine of the testaments, they were to be told how they might attain to the true Peacemaker and eternal life.”

Any crusaders killed on the job were guaranteed a place in heaven, as with modern-day suicide bombers. This was particularly useful as it meant that while the leading scions of each noble family could win their place in heaven crusading in the Holy Land, even second sons and the most dimwitted aristocrats stood a chance of doing the same if they answered the recruiting call delivered from pulpits across Christian Europe and embarked on a tour of duty Balticside.

Crusading was an expensive business after all, with crusaders needing to bring their own equipment and servants, and the Northern Crusade sometimes seems like a sort of cut-price Baltic package deal compared to the full luxury-spec Palestinian holiday in the sun with Saladin.

No wonder that like Daesh, the Sword Brothers quickly realised that controlling the economy was just as important as military prowess, setting up their own local administration and tax-collection structures. In theory they were allowed to keep one third of the lands they conquered, with the rest going to the church. In practice they kept rather more.

And just as Daesh likes to depict its own actions as justified but those of everyone else as savage, so Henry tells us of the sad fate of two converts:

“Thus it was that by a conspiracy of the Livonians, their feet were bound by ropes and they were cut through the middle. They afflicted them with most cruel punishments, tore out their viscera and cut off their arms and legs. There is no doubt that they received eternal life for such martyrdom.”

On the other hand, after one skirmish near Turaida  it was perfectly fine for the head of a local chieftan named Ako to be presented to Bishop Albert as a sign of victory, with Henry informing us Albert was delighted with the gift as he had just finished saying Mass.

Yet at times, reading between the lines of Henry’s chronicle, one gets the sense even he is uneasy with the level of carnage generated by the Sword Brothers.

Nor do the parallels end there, with some assuming a certain grim irony given current events in Syria – itself a former crusader destination. Every now and again opportunistic Russian princes cross the borer and intervene in Henry’s narrative, playing the other sides off against each other. Sounds familiar.

Those ‘other sides’ also include an uneasy alliance involving the great military powers of the time with Danes, Poles, Germans and even a future King Henry IV of England who spent a year besieging Vilnius to earn papal points.

To further legitimize their takeover of Livonia and cosy up to the Pope in the hope he might bankroll them a bit more generously, the crusaders attempted to name the conquered lands “Terra Mariana” (Virgin Mary’s Land), a name that rather like “Islamic State” was more of a hopeful advertising pitch than an objective reality.

800 years on, the President of Latvia is proud to hand out a facsimile history of Terra Mariana even to the President of Estonia.

Hopefully in another 800 years Daesh will be no more than a bloody and nauseating footnote to history. But should we become complacent about the staying power of religious fundamentalism it is worth remembering that these days, the defeat of the Sword Brothers at the Battle of Saule in 1236 is celebrated every year in Lithuania – the last place in Europe to be Christianized and now one of the most solidly Catholic countries in the world.